There are four main types of diabetic neuropathy — nerve damage that can occur as a result of high blood sugar when you have diabetes. You may have just one type or symptoms of several types. Most types of diabetic neuropathy develop gradually, and you may not notice problems until considerable damage has occurred.
Talk to your doctor about any of the following symptoms. The sooner they can be diagnosed and treated, the better the chance of preventing further complications.
Peripheral neuropathy is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy. Your feet and legs are often affected first, followed by your hands and arms. Possible signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy include:
- Numbness or reduced ability to feel pain or changes in temperature, especially in your feet and toes
- A tingling or burning feeling
- Sharp, jabbing pain that may be worse at night
- Extreme sensitivity to the lightest touch — for some people even the weight of a sheet can be agonizing
- Muscle weakness
- Loss of reflex response
- Serious foot problems, such as ulcers, infections, deformities, and bone and joint pain
The autonomic nervous system controls your heart, bladder, lungs, stomach, intestines, sex organs and eyes. Diabetes can affect the nerves in any of these areas, possibly causing:
May 17, 2017
- A lack of awareness that blood sugar levels are low (hypoglycemia unawareness)
- Bladder problems, including frequent urinary tract infections or urinary incontinence or urinary retention
- Constipation, uncontrolled diarrhea or a combination of the two
- Slow stomach emptying (gastroparesis) leading to nausea, vomiting, sensation of fullness and loss of appetite
- Difficulty swallowing
- Erectile dysfunction in men
- Vaginal dryness and other sexual difficulties in women
- Increased or decreased sweating
- Sharp drops in blood pressure when you rise from sitting or lying down, that may cause you to feel lightheaded or faint (orthostatic hypotension)
- Problems regulating your body temperature
- Changes in the way your eyes adjust from light to dark
- Increased heart rate when you're at rest
- Nerve damage (Diabetic neuropathies). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/preventing-problems/nerve-damage-diabetic-neuropathies. Accessed March 1, 2017.
- Longo DL, et al., eds. Diabetes mellitus: Complications. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed March 3, 2017.
- Melmed S, et al. Complications of diabetes mellitus. In: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 1, 2017.
- Feldman EL. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 27, 2017.
- Shefner JM. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 27, 2017.
- Kothari MJ. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 3, 2017.